J.M. Wells and R.M. Brannon
With the relatively recent introduction of quantitative and volumetric X-ray computedtomography (XCT) applied to ballistic impact damage diagnostics, signiﬁcant inroads have beenmade in expanding our knowledge base of the morphological variants of physical impactdamage. Yet, the current state of the art in computational and simulation modeling of terminalballistic performance remains predominantly focused on the penetration phenomenon, withoutdetailed consideration of the physical characteristics of actual impact damage. Similarly, armorceramic material improvements appear more focused on penetration resistance than on improved intrinsic damage tolerance and damage resistance. Basically, these approaches minimizeour understanding of the potential inﬂuence that impact damage may play in the mitigation orprevention of ballistic penetration. Examples of current capabilities of XCT characterization,quantiﬁcation, and visualization of complex impact damage variants are demonstrated anddiscussed for impacted ceramic and metallic terminal ballistic target materials. Potential beneﬁtsof incorporating such impact damage diagnostics in future ballistic computational modeling arealso brieﬂy discussed.